Water Quality

Topic Water Quality

Tracking Harmful Algal Blooms in Western Lake Erie

In recent years, the western basin of Lake Erie has experienced a rising number of severe algal blooms. These blooms can bring serious consequences for human and environmental health, as well as economic activity in nearby communities. The research team will use satellite imagery, buoys, field data, weather conditions, and river flow patterns to characterize the effects of the Detroit River on the optimal conditions for bloom formation. This information can give managers an advantage in predicting when and where future algal blooms may appear.

Graduate Student Fellow: Angela Yu, Michigan Technological University
Project Overview (PDF)

Green Infrastructure Implementation: Planning for a Sustainable Future

Green infrastructure uses plants, soils, and natural processes to manage rain and snowmelt wherever it flows. Many Michigan communities are interested in using green infrastructure to supplement traditional grey infrastructure components such as storm drains, sewer pipes, and wastewater treatment plants. However, there are many barriers to the large-scale adoption of green infrastructure projects. Individuals, organizations, and communities across the state face regulatory red tape, lack of funding, lack of quantifiable incentives, and other challenges. The research team will identify and address these challenges and develop strategies for easing the transition toward green infrastructure in Michigan.

Lead Project Investigator: Don Carpenter, Lawrence Technological University
Project WebsiteProject Overview (PDF)

Developing Stable Open Channel Design

The conventional trapezoidal drain is the main type of drainage ditch in use throughout Michigan. Trapezoidal drains are highly efficient at providing drainage and moving flood flows, but also have a high risk of failure, require more maintenance and contribute to several other problems related to water quality. In contrast, channel design that mimics self-sustaining, natural systems has been shown to improve long-term drain stability and water quality.

The research team will explore if and how the principles of open channel design — a more resilient, natural approach to drainage — can be successfully integrated into existing county drain programs and policies.

Project number: R/CCD-30, 2014-2016
Carol J. Miller, Wayne State University
Project Website | Project Overview (PDF)

Where People Meet the Muck: Muck in the Saginaw Bay

In several regions of the Great Lakes, including Saginaw Bay, muck is a problem. It has been blamed for poor water quality and economic losses — and it’s not a new issue. Records of muck in Saginaw Bay go back to the 1960s, but other accounts mention problem muck as far back as the 1920s. The muck in Saginaw Bay is thought to be the result of excess nutrients in the system (for example, phosphorous from fertilizers or sewage from combined sewer overflows), though changes in the food web, particularly those caused by invasive mussels, likely add to the problem.

The research team will explore the causes, consequences and possible ways to address the muck problem at the Bay City State Recreation Area in Saginaw Bay, as well as the public perception of the issue.

Project number: R/SS-2, 2014-2016
Donna Kashian, Wayne State University
Project Website | Project Overview (PDF)

Assessing the Torch Lake Area of Concern

Torch Lake, located in the Keweenaw of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, was impacted by copper mining from the mid-1800s to the late 1960s. Because of several environmental issues such as fish tumors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed Torch Lake as an Area of Concern (AOC) in 1987. After some clean up, the EPA recently reported that there was not enough information available in order to accomplish rapid remediation of the site. The research team will combine existing information with previously untapped information in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the mining and environmental history of the area, to educate and engage stakeholders and to supply material that can be used to help remediate the site where needed.

R/WQ-4, dates: 2012-2014
Noel R. Urban, Michigan Technological University
Project website

Green Marina Education and Outreach

Clean Marina programs in Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin are focusing on a plan to reduce pollution from boating and marina activities throughout the region. The project partners are working to establish uniform certification standards that can be applied to marinas throughout the Great Lakes and beyond.
Project website

Restoring Natural Flows in the Clinton River Watershed

The 80-mile long Clinton River has its headwaters in rural and developing areas, and then flows through heavily urbanized sections of southern Oakland and Macomb counties before eventually draining into Lake St. Clair in southeast Michigan. Although water quality in the Clinton River has improved over the past 30 years, the river faces a number of environmental challenges, including extreme fluctuation of water flow.

R/CGLH-3, dates: 2009-2012
Don Carpenter, Lawrence Technological University
Project website | Fact sheet (PDF)

Rein in the Runoff

Researchers worked closely with town managers, planning commission members, stormwater managers, and residents to evaluate stormwater run-off issues in Spring Lake watershed in West Michigan. The research team developed a variety of tools to help community leaders select and implement strategies for reducing run off and improving water quality, including computer models of runoff in the watershed, a range of maps, a detailed comparison of stormwater management techniques, and several example ordinances. Ultimately, Spring Lake watershed can serve as model for communities around the Great Lakes that struggle with stormwater runoff issues.

R/WQ-1, dates: 2007-2009
Alan Steinman and Elaine Sterrett-Isely, Grand Valley State University – Annis Water Resources Institute
Project results

Impact: New Techniques Shed Light on Genetic Pollution at Coastal Beaches

Sea Grant-funded researchers at Central Michigan University studied the genetics of bacteria found in beaches along Lakes Huron, Michigan, Superior, and St. Clair. They found that E. Coli, a bacteria that usually lives in the digestive track of mammals, is nearly ubiquitous in sandy beaches of the Great Lakes. Although E. Coli is usually harmless to people, a few strains can cause illness. Researchers also assessed whether beach bacteria contain three specific genes that would make them resistant to antibiotics. In tests conducted in 2005, they found that while two of the genes are rare, one of the genes was detected in 80 percent of beach sand samples analyzed. If this gene is transferred into disease-causing bacteria, potential infections would be harder to treat with traditional antibiotics. Research about the public health implications is on-going.

Project: Genetic Pollution: Coastal Beaches as Environmental Reservoirs of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance Genes
R/PSC-5, dates: 2005-2008
Elizabeth Wheeler Alm, Central Michigan University

Water Quality and Public Health Risks in the Great Lakes

M/PD-10, dates: 2003-2006
Joan Rose, Michigan State University

An Evaluation of Seasonal and Temporal Variability in Potential trace Metal Remobilization in Coastal Wetlands Sediments Using Voltametric Microelectrode Technology and Solid Phase Extraction Techniques

R/ES-20, dates: 2003-2006
Brent Lewis, Kettering University

Prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. in Michigan Great Lakes Fish and Water

M/PD-2, dates: 2001-2004
Mohamed Faisal, Michigan State University

An Environmental Monitoring Network for Lake St. Clair

Elevated bacteria levels in Lake St. Clair have led to frequent closings of popular beaches in Southeast Michigan. With assistance from NOAA-GLERL, researchers developed a way to predict water quality conditions in Lake St. Clair and to aid local officials in predicting beach closures. Using advanced data collection and remote sensing technology, the system provided timely and accurate predictions of nearshore water quality conditions and potential threats to human health. The system was used as a management tool by local agencies, and automated buoy data was made available to the general public via web site. The methods, approach and monitoring network used in Lake St. Clair are transferrable to other areas in the Great Lakes affected by beach closures.

R/EM-7, dates: 2001-2004
Guy Meadows, University of Michigan

Bioregulation of Trace Metals in the Great Lakes

R/ES-17, dates: 1999-2002
Jerome Nriagu, University of Michigan